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It's aloof accomplished 6pm on an boilerplate weeknight in Kings Cross but already the streets are bushing up with backpackers and kids from Sydney's western suburbs, athirst to party. Bored band club spruikers are aggravating to boom up the aboriginal beachcomber of dwindling, post-lockout law business, while in ancillary streets, seagulls and ibises arrest the bins and the odd aficionado communes with a dealer.

DC Rally 4 Refugees

This wouldn't be my aboriginal best of ambience in which to anniversary a accessible adolescent refugee, one who has been bent and ashamed because of his homosexuality, one who lives added than 20 kilometres abroad in Sydney's sprawling south-west. But it was Farhad's abstraction to accommodated here. "No one will apperceive me here," explains the 27-year-old, analysis the arena afore demography a bench in an alfresco cafe.

At aboriginal glance, you could aberration Farhad*, with his handsome, aquiline actualization and tall, angular physique, as a refugee from axial casting. Sporting absolute jeans and a atramentous T-shirt, Farhad has honey-brown bark and tattoos crimper up and bottomward his authentic accoutrements and shoulders. It's abandoned aback I booty a afterpiece look, and blot the capacity of his amazing adaptation story, that I apprehension the abundant scars dabbling out from beneath his tattoos, the pockmarks brindled over his accoutrements and hands, and a brace of missing teeth: all the bequest of his ache in Iran four years ago. He easily me a agglomeration of papers, including affidavits and clearing documents, to abutment his account.

It's taken a array of reassurances on my part, including an alive agreement that he won't be articular in any story, to argue Farhad to booty allotment in this conversation. I'd been audition advancing belletrist about the way gay refugees gluttonous cover on the base of their female are assessed: from laughable, banal questions brash to authorize whether they're gay or not, to cardboard analysis into animality aural the refugees' country of origin, to excruciatingly continued delays in acceding them a hearing. I'd spent the bigger allotment of a year phoning, emailing and interviewing clearing agents and lawyers, and sourcing abstracts via abandon of information.

But such is the altitude of abhorrence amid those at accident of actuality beatific aback to countries area they've suffered abhorrent persecution, no one is accommodating to talk, batty that any affectionate of publicity ability balk their case to breach in Australia. Afterwards the buzz cut out on what seemed like the hundredth alarm gluttonous an interview, I was about to accord up. Afresh Farhad phoned, allurement me whether I was attractive for a "gay refugee still". In burst English, he explained that he was accommodating to allotment his adventure in the achievement others may acquire what it's like to be gay and in abhorrence for your life.

So actuality we are in this Kings Cross cafe, area Farhad is anniversary his adventure of growing up in Tehran with his parents and earlier brother. His ancestor part-owned a beautician shop, which Farhad managed. "I was actual blessed about my life," he says in a abysmal voice. The abandoned aphotic billow was alive with his homosexuality, which in Iran is banned and carries the afterlife penalty. About no one comes out in Iran, alike to associates of their own family, as this is the best accustomed way LGBTQI bodies are appear to the "morality police" and befuddled into prison.

Although Farhad had a acceptable accord with his parents, he never bamboozled himself that they would acquire accepting a gay son, decidedly as his ancestor was a admired bounded mullah and his grandfathering an ayatollah. He'd accustomed aback his aboriginal adolescence that he was a hamjens-bazi, the aspersing appellation the government and accompaniment media use to alarm addition who "plays" with the aforementioned sex (the abutting English adaptation is faggot). Any artlessness would accompany abashment to the family, and amusing ostracism.

Keeping his female abstruse was about accessible for Farhad, as he wasn't someone, in articulation or manner, you'd apprehend as actuality gay. But then, maybe this emboldened him to booty risks, abnormally afterwards his brother appear his abstruse to their father, who anon went into denial. "My brother was anxious of me because he anticipation my ancestor admired me bigger than himself," Farhad explains. "He told my ancestor that I was gay – actual bad – and had a boyfriend."

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Perhaps because he'd collapsed in love, Farhad committed the uncharacteristically adventuresome act of agreeable his admirer aback to the ancestors home aback anybody was out. It was appetizing fate: Farhad's ancestor came home unexpectedly, award the two adolescent men in bed together. "He was very, actual angry. 'My son is dead, my son is dead,' he bawl … afore phoning police."

At the base the badge aggregate to banter at Farhad, afresh punching him and arresting him with a baton. A brace of teeth were agape out and ribs cracked. Three admiral took turns to barge on him while he was lying on the floor, disengagement a bond in one of his legs. Strung up in a cell, one administrator took accurate amusement in advancing his easily – angle them so far backwards the fingers on one duke broke. "I was actual afraid," says Farhad, nursing his now abandoned coffee cup. "[The police] were saying, 'You will never see your ancestors again.' "

After a anniversary of imprisonment, Farhad was aback released, afterwards explanation. "Kicked out of badge base and about conscious, I phoned a acquaintance to booty me to hospital," he says.

There he remained for a month, convalescent his backbone and will to live, abashed the badge would acknowledgment to rearrest him. Afterwards actuality discharged, he lived in his car for a few months, affective about consistently until he could organise an adaptation with his boyfriend. But they'd no eventually acclimatized in than Farhad's ancestors begin out area they lived and notified the authorities. On a tip-off, Farhad and his accomplice fled through a neighbour's abode and backyard aloof as the badge were anguish on the door.

In one belled case, an appellant was accounted not gay by the Attorneys afterwards declining questions about Madonna, Bette Midler, Oscar Wilde and Greco-Roman wrestling.

The neighbour affably awash off their car and furniture, demography a cut for himself, afore handing them abundant money to buy alike tickets to Malaysia and Indonesia. They acclimated every aftermost cent in their coffer accounts to pay a bodies smuggler $6000 apiece for a baiter cruise to Australia. Several weeks afterwards they begin themselves on an unseaworthy barge awash in with 100 added atrocious cover seekers. "People were afraid, angry for bubbler water," recalls Farhad. "The baiter acquainted alarming all the time."

DC Rally 4 Refugees

In July 2013 they fabricated it to Christmas Island, area they were captivated for a few weeks in detention, afore actuality transferred to a acreage apprehension centre. To their relief, afterwards a array of bloom and aegis checks, Farhad and his accomplice were appear in Melbourne on a bridging visa. But because they weren't accustomed to work, both were abased on refugee charities for adaptation and food. It was at this point, afterwards aggregate they had been through, that the brace beggared ways, for affirmation Farhad won't allocution about.

After he was offered chargeless adaptation from a Tasmanian abutment group, Farhad confused to Hobart, area he backward for added than a year afore relocating to Sydney, clearing in a south-western suburb alive by abounding others from the Middle East. He has lodged a affirmation with the Department of Clearing and Border Aegis for a refugee aegis acceptance on the base that he's gay and Iran is not a safe country for him. If he's refused, as abounding are, he charge address to the Refugee and Clearing Division of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, accustomed until 2015 as the Refugee Analysis Tribunal. The Attorneys is the aftermost stop for cover seekers who abscond to Australia claiming refugee status.

While he waits for an acknowledgment from the Department of Immigration, Farhad's activity is in a captivation pattern. He's actual alert about bond too carefully aural the Iranian association for abhorrence addition will analyze him and acquaintance his family, yet he's additionally an alien to Sydney's gay community. "I don't apperceive abounding bodies and it's adamantine to accomplish accompany with not any money and my English," he explains. Surviving on alms and casual cash-in-hand jobs as a barber, he buys himself the odd amusement – a brace of jeans or a night at the movies. "I've been actuality for years and still don't apperceive what will appear to me," he says with frustration. "I acquire … nothing."

While he misses his happy, alive activity in Iran, and alike the ancestors who betrayed him, abiding home is not an option, not afterwards risking his life. The ache now is uncertainty. Asked what he'll do if his appliance for cover fails and he's abandoned aback to Iran, Farhad looks bottomward and fails to answer.

Professor Jenni Millbank has been researching the refugee attorneys for over 20 years. Photo: Richard Hedger/www.richardhedger.com

Farhad isn't abandoned in this predicament. As with added refugees in Australia on acting visas, he's clumsy to work, has little money, few friends, little or no English. What makes Farhad's case different, and that of others like him, is his sexuality.

When it comes to criticisms of the Tribunal, it's the analysis of gay refugees that absolutely stands out, say its critics. Success ante for gay cover seekers are pitifully low, according to Professor Jenni Millbank, of the University of Technology Sydney, who has researched the Tribunal's access to female cases for about two decades. A 2003 abstraction by Millbank showed that at best abandoned 20 per cent of gay refugees accomplish in accepting a aegis visa. "There's a accepted actuation with panels to fast-track and cost-save, rather than accomplish sensible, absolute decisions," she says.

While no one is suggesting the Tribunal's job is aboveboard – accepting to decide, for instance, whether the about 100 cover seekers who administer for a aegis acceptance anniversary year on the base that they're gay are cogent the accuracy – there are criticisms about Attorneys officials' abridgement of abilities and training in refugee issues. Attorneys admiral acquire continued been accused of anticipation applicants based on a bulk of Western gay stereotypes, such as chichi address or dress. In one belled case, an appellant was accounted not gay afterwards declining questions about Madonna, Bette Midler, Oscar Wilde and Greco-Roman wrestling. The man about batten English and was addled by the topics. "I don't acquire it," he said to his interviewer. "I'm sorry."

High Cloister justices were staggered to apprehend in 2004 that a refugee was appropriate to acknowledgment questions about the accompanist Madonna, amid added identities from the ball world. Photo: Peter Bregg

When in 2004 his case came afore the High Cloister on address (after the Federal Cloister had aboriginal disqualified adjoin the applicant), the justices were staggered by the band of analytic acclimated by the Tribunal, anecdotic it as actual odd, and about adjoining on the bizarre. "Madonna, Bette Midler and so on are phenomena of Western culture," declared Justice Michael Kirby at the time. "In Iran, area there is afterlife for some bodies who are homosexuals, these are not in the beginning of the mind. Adaptation is." (The appellant won the High Cloister case and was afterwards accustomed cover by the admission Labor federal government.)

More contempo cases don't accord abundant acumen for comfort. Aftermost year, a man from Bangladesh was abandoned in allotment because he was clumsy to accurately accent or spell the name of a Sydney gay club he'd visited alleged the Stonewall, according to Attorneys abstracts – which afield referred to the bistro as a "day venue". In a agnate 2014 case, an cover appellant was told he wasn't gay because, although he declared accepting two austere relationships, he hadn't "explored his homosexuality" by activity to Sydney's gay bars, and had little ability of Oxford Street.

Questions about animal encounters can centre on who is the "top", and who is the "bottom", or the use of lubricant. Some atrocious applicants alike resort to alms videos or images of themselves accepting sex to prove their case. Some admiral accede this actual and others adios it. Because there are no guidelines for ambidextrous with LGBTQI applicants, a Attorneys affiliate is at alternative to ask appealing abundant any catechism they wish, for this is no cloister room.

Ahmer*, a gay refugee from Pakistan, spent added than a year advancing for his Attorneys hearing. His clearing abettor brash him to comedy up to abandoned and affair affairs stereotypes to addition his affairs of success. "We calm a lot of affirmation – I had to get lots of abutment belletrist from people; pictures that prove yes I am gay and I am not lying," he tells me over the phone. "Like, you know, at gay confined and that affectionate of stuff." The anniversary angry out to be alike added advancing than he expected. "They capital to apperceive a lot about the sex I acquire had, how and where, and with which persons. I acquainted they anticipation I was not accepting actual abundant [sex] and this was asked about."

Ravi*, addition gay refugee, appear in a 2013 anniversary with the ABC that a clearing abettor appropriate he acquire sex with an Australian man and get an affirmation from him to prove it. "That actuality I slept with gave me a letter that he was a absolute Australian citizen," he said at the time. "It was consensual sex but I never enjoyed it. Now if addition capital to do a agnate affair with me it would be comparing as a rape." Ravi said he was brash to "camp" it up in any way accessible aback he appeared afore the Tribunal. "I acquire been brash to bore my aerial and abrasion the earrings so that I can actualization that I am altered from added Muslim Bangladeshis," he said.

DC Rally 4 Refugees

Poor English, apprenticed affairs and advancing struggles with their female can all accord to abounding gay refugees accepting little, if any, captivation with gay organisations or nightlife. Yet afterwards this affectionate of evidence, best are abandoned by the Tribunal. Aftermost year a man from Lebanon absent his bid for aegis in allotment because, according to the Attorneys member's findings: "He knew little or annihilation about Sydney's gay scene. His affirmation about his homosexual affairs in Sydney was ambiguous and unconvincing."

John Azzi, who has represented gay cover seekers in court, in his appointment at the University of Western Sydney. Photo: Louise Kennerley

In addition case a Attorneys affiliate became so absent with the cover seeker's cruise to a gay bathroom that the audition angry into a diffuse claiming about the venue, which the appellant visited abandoned once, backward at night. His disability to alarm the autogenous above the best basal capacity or go into detail about "what bodies did" there contributed to the bounce of his claim. Advocate John Azzi, who afterwards represented the refugee in the Federal Court, declared the Attorneys analytic as "absurd".

An Egyptian cover appellant was abandoned by the Attorneys in allotment because he didn't attending blithe abundant at Mardi Gras. "The appellant appears to be in accustomed artery clothes, afterwards a accompaniment of his own, and there is no adumbration he is accustomed to any of the bodies in the photos."

International able Neil Grungras, arch of the Organization for Refuge, Cover and Clearing in the US, which runs training courses for governments and non-government organisations on how to appraise cases based on refugee sexuality, insists stereotypes aloof don't cut it. "If I acquire somebody who claims to be alive a gay activity in Sydney, but they don't apperceive Mardi Gras, Oxford Artery and gay bars, I don't acquire they're not gay," he says in a Skype alarm from the US. "If you're an cover seeker, you apparently don't acquire money to go bubbler at the confined and you may not acquire abundant or any English."

Ben Lumsdaine, a chief adviser with the Refugee Advice and Casework Service in Sydney, echoes the sentiment. "A lot of gay ability is absolutely sophisticated; it's not article that you can aloof airing into from a adopted country, area you've had to adumbrate your female your accomplished life. You may be depressed, or adversity from some added brainy bloom condition."

Ben Lumsdaine with a appellant at the Refugee Advice and Casework Service in Sydney. Photo: Nadine Koroleva

A above five-year adept of the Tribunal, who does not appetite to be named, says the use of stereotypes is all the added alarming because there are no safeguards to assure bodies from bad decisions, except an address to the Federal Court. "There are no checks or curbs on these assumptions, with associates accustomed chargeless rein to allow whatever claimed angle they may authority aback authoritative decisions that can beggarly activity and afterlife in the best acute cases," he says.

Some associates of the Attorneys acquire additionally struggled to acquire that some gay bodies may acquire ahead been affiliated or had children, generally application this advice to accomplish adverse allegation adjoin claimants' credibility. In a case from 2015, the Attorneys could not acquire an Egyptian man was gay, alike admitting it accustomed he'd had sex with men, because he was in an abiding alliance with a woman.

Oddly enough, while some applicants acquire bootless because they haven't assertive the Attorneys they're gay, a scattering of heterosexual men acquire able because they've claimed animality on the base of their aftertaste in actualization and hairstyles. A beeline macho from Iraq was accustomed aegis in 2014 because the Attorneys absitively he was an "emo" (a goth-inspired attending involving absolute atramentous beard and angular jeans).

"I acquire that his concrete actualization ability readily be perceived to be feminine. I acquire the applicant's affirmation that, while in Iraq, he was addled and alleged afraid because of his feminine appearance," a Attorneys affiliate found. A Colombian activist who declared himself as a "punk" told the Attorneys he faced problems because of the way he dressed. He was accustomed aegis backward aftermost year. He was asked to name his favourite jailbait bands and what they meant to him as allotment of the Tribunal's assessment. One Bangladeshi couple, who fled their country in 1998 afterwards actuality benumbed by villagers, fought the Attorneys for 16 years through the courts, including a battleground High Cloister case. They were assuredly accustomed refugee aegis in backward 2015.

Make no mistake: a Attorneys audition is not like a accustomed courtroom. There is aloof one Attorneys affiliate audition the case, forth with the applicant, sometimes a clearing abettor or lawyer, and an interpreter. Abounding who acquire dealt with the Attorneys allegorize the conduct of hearings to an inconsistent interrogation. Alike if the Federal Cloister believes the Attorneys has abominably fabricated an adverse finding, it has little ability to annul the decision, says above Attorneys affiliate Linda Kirk. "There's not a lot of checks and balances," says Kirk, who is about to acknowledge the Attorneys afterwards a two-year break. "The courts can abandoned attending at acknowledged issues; the courts are clumsy to amend the absolute findings."

There are 77 countries in which it's actionable to be gay, says the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. In most, gay bodies ache harassment, bigotry and, in the affliction cases, death; Iran has accomplished at atomic 5000 gay men aback the 1979 Islamic revolution, according to Amnesty International. Successive contempo Amnesty belletrist comparing attitudes about the apple appear that Middle Eastern countries acquire some of the everyman levels of altruism for homosexuality in the world. Aftermost year, Iran fabricated anniversary aback it accomplished a gay jailbait for the abomination of sodomy. Earlier this year, Human Rights Watch appear that gay adolescence were actuality electrocuted in Iran in a bid to "cure" them.

In the past, the Attorneys has been criticised for application sources like the Spartacus International Gay Adviser as a antecedent for free whether a country is adverse to LGBTQI people. The anniversary guides are brash for tourists and rarely focus on altitude alfresco the above cities, let abandoned the bearings of accustomed bodies alive in these countries. Contempo cases acquire complex Attorneys associates application online gay biking guides to Turkey, Lebanon and Nepal: Neil Grungras says these sources are absolutely bare for free how safe or alarming a country is for LGBTQI people.

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When I approached the Attorneys for a statement, I was afraid aback they mentioned the Spartacus publication, which is targeted at white gay men, as a reliable antecedent of advice on anti-homosexual persecution. It said in a statement: "Members consistently booty into anniversary a ample ambit of advice about the altitude of an applicant's country of abettor aback authoritative a decision; this includes publications such as the Spartacus International Gay Guide."

A accustomed complaint from above Attorneys associates is that they accept bare training, abnormally for LGBTQI applicants. "There is no accurate advice accustomed to associates as to how to accomplish these complicated assessments," says Kirk. "I anticipate that is why associates can conceivably go adrift and blow on things like, 'Have you alternate in the Mardi Gras?' or 'What's your appearance on Madonna?' "

Asked about their training services, the Attorneys tells me that appointees accept a three-day consecration program, followed by two weeks of mentoring.

The tribunal's assignment is absolutely a complicated one. "In the absence of acceptance affirmation it's still guesswork," concedes Professor Jenni Millbank. "If the appellant is not too traumatised and they are able to allocution about those experiences, that should be a bigger guide. However, it is an access that takes added time, requires added affirmation and alluringly requires bodies to be represented by advocates who additionally acquire acuteness and time to appropriately body their cases."

But that may be easier said than done, with above Attorneys associates accusatory about the arduous workload. According to the Tribunal's aftermost anniversary report, the excess in aegis visas has developed to added than 8370 alive cases (spread amid 151 Attorneys associates nationally, 86 of whom are part-time).

What's authoritative things alike added catchy is the scattering of applicants assuming to be gay, cases that acquire fatigued absorption from the abridged press. In 2014, clearing abettor Sam Issa was banned from practising for bristles years afterwards it was apparent he had been apprenticeship his audience to affected actuality gay to authorize for aegis visas. The federal government's Appointment of the Clearing Agents Registration Authority begin he had been demography audience to gay confined to affectation in photos and auspicious them to accompany gay clubs to bolster counterfeit claims.

There acquire additionally been a cardinal of cases area dodgy agents acquaint audience it's as simple as activity to a few gay bars, downloading the gay affiliation app Grindr and abutting a few indigenous gay groups to prove they are LGBTQI, because it's frequently captivated in the clearing and acknowledged sectors that these are the things the Attorneys is attractive for.

In an alike added advancing case aftermost year, acclaimed advocate and clearing abettor David Bitel was accused by six cover seekers, in incidents activity aback to the mid-1990s, of sexually assaulting them and cogent them to affected actuality gay to access aegis visas. Bitel died in 2016 while the affairs were still afore the courts.

These cases acquire accustomed the Tribunal's attitude appear female claims, accomplished and present associates acquaint Acceptable Weekend. "There's a absolute agitation decision-makers acquire about bodies assuming to be gay," says Anna Brown, the administrator of acknowledged advancement at the Human Rights Law Centre.

Most refugees do not challenge Attorneys decisions, but in some cases they try to action aback and address Attorneys decisions through the courts. But because the courts can abandoned analyze errors of law, best claimants wind up actuality referred aback to the Tribunal.

In 2014, the European Union banned affiliate countries from allurement arrant animal questions to appraise gay refugees, or requesting images or videos. Neil Grungras says talking about people's alone adventures and their own acquaintance of sexuality, rather than allurement about bars, sex and gay icons, is a bigger way to actuate a person's claim. He and others acquire afresh offered to run female training for members, but the Attorneys has declined.

A agent for the Attorneys explains that its associates are apprenticed by clearing legislation. She stresses that anniversary affiliate is not an employee, but an "independent appointment holder" who is accountable to courts of address and not the Attorneys itself. They're appointed by the federal attorney-general on a anchored term, usually bristles to seven years. "If there is an affair about the conduct of a case or any award made, that would be dealt with in the administrative analysis action as it is the courts which acquire a accordant authoritative role," the Attorneys outlines in a accounting response.

Meanwhile, Farhad is still cat-and-mouse for his case to be assessed. During our aftermost conversation, he seemed absolutely burst by the action of cat-and-mouse afterwards alive area he will end up and if he can alpha his activity again. Aback I contacted him afresh aloof above-mentioned to activity to press, he didn't acknowledgment my calls.

*Some names acquire been afflicted to assure privacy.

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